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Jaya Jaya Sri Sudarsana !


Jaya Jaya Sri Sudarsana !

 

KNOW ABOUT SAGES - Part IV of IV

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-24

1.SAGE KOUNDINYA

Koundinya was a great sage. He was a master of Vedic knowledge. He was a sage known beyond Bharat. Ashraya was his wife.

1.1 A piece of Durva is having more weight than Kubera's treasury Gold

Kaundinya came to prominence as a youth due to his mastery of the Vedas.He was a great devotee of Lord Ganesha. One day he was explaining the importance of Durva to his wife Ashraya. She did not believe it, so Sage Koundinya told his wife, ' if you have any doubts regarding the importance of Durva then you go to God Indra and tell him that I want the gold which weighs exactly as same as a Durva.

1.2 Ashraya goes to Kubera on directions of Indra.

Following the instructions of her husband, Ashraya went to God Indra.Having placed a Durva in front of him, she said, 'My husband has asked you to give him that quantity of gold which weighs exactly the same as a Durva.' God Indra told her the quantity of gold would be very small, he would give them as much as gold they want.

But she said, ' I want the gold as I desired.' Then God Indra sent her to God Kubera along with a messenger and ordered him to give her the gold she desired.

1.3 Kubera exhaust his treasury gold.

God Kubera placed the Durva on one pan of the balance and a small piece of gold on the other pan. But to his great surprise, the pan containing the Durva weighed more. Then God Kubera put some more gold into the pan, but still the pan of Durva weighed more. Eventually he put all his gold into the pan but still the weight of the single Durva was more. Then God Kubera sat along with his wife into the pan of gold, but still the weight of one Durva is more. By seeing this all the deities gathered around and eventually they also sat in the pan. But still the weight of a Durva was more!

They all along with Ashraya went to Sage Koundinya and said, 'Today we came to know the importance of a single Durva offered to Lord Ganesha with devotion!'

1.4Koundinya joins king Suddodana.

Later Koundinya got appointed as a royal court scholar of King Suddhodana of the Sakyas in Kapilavastu. There Kaundinya was the only scholar who unequivocally predicted upon the birth of Prince Siddhartha that the prince would become an enlightened Buddha, and vowed to become his disciple.

Kaundinya and four colleagues followed Siddhartha in six years of ascetic practice, but abandoned in disgust after Siddhartha gave up the practice of self-mortification.

1.5 Koundinya get Buddaha's sermon.

Upon enlightenment, Siddartha gave his first dharma talk to Kaundinya's group. Kaundinya was the first to comprehend the teaching and thus became the first bhikkhu and arahant.

Following the formation of the sangha, Kaundinya and the other monks travelled with the Buddha by foot through the Gangetic plains area of what is now Bihar and Uttar Pradesh to spread the dharma.

1.6 Sage Koundinya- creation of Parvathi.

Alghu Malluru Krishna Swamy temple exists in the Mannarpoluru Village, right from the time of Telugu Chola rulers. The village is close-by to Sullurupet, at a distance of 103 Km. from Nellore.

According to a legend, it was here that Lord Sri Krishna defeated Jambavantha in a duel and married his daughter Jambavati. Apart from the idol ofSatyabhama and Jambavati, the two consorts of Lord Krishna, the idol of Jambavantha creating the illusion of shedding tears are bound to amaze the viewers.

Legend represents them as having sprung from Koundinya Rishi. There is a version that sage Koundinya himself was created by Parvati for the purpose of extracting and fermenting the sap of the wild date palm and thus supplying the wants of gods and men in the matter of intoxicating drinks.

 It is said that the gods and demons were so delighted with the pleasant beverage, that they conferred upon him the title of 'Gouda' or 'the head of mankind.

1.7  Gowds in Andhra pradesh -followers of sage Koundinya

According to Gowd legend, they have originated from the Great Sage Kaundinya who lived in Kurnool district (around 1300 AD). The community is derived branch of somavamsha kshatriyas who lived at the time of Parashurama. They pray the deity Renuka who is a Kshatriya and mother of Parashurama. She is also wife of jamadagni who is a Brahmin.

The members of the community have gothras like(1) Koundinya, (2) Bharadwaja, (3) kashyapa, (4) vasista, (5) Markendeya, (6) Dhanunjaya (7) Datteraya.

They are divided into Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis, or the worshippers of Vishnu and Shiva, under the guidance of their respective sectarian gurus, Shri Vaishnava and Aradhi Brahmans.

The Gouds originally prospered around the Godavari River.

  Kurdumale Ganesh temple and sage Koundinya.

Among the many tourist spots of Kolar district with legendary stories, Kurudumale near Mulbagal is one. Located off the NH4 this place at 105Kms from Bangalore. Kurudumale is popular more because of the temples of Ganesha and Someshewara each with its own story.

The only road of the village culminates at the famous Ganesha temple. Long ago the Hindu Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara came here together and consecrated the temple of Ganesha. As this place was the confluence of Gods, it was named Kudumale, which gradually became Kurudumale.

The hill was called Kutadri where sage Koundinya lived as a recluse and hence also called Koundinya Kshetra. During Threthayuga, Lord Ram is believed to have worshipped here after killing Ravana.

Sri Krishna who was blamed for having stolen the shyamanthaka Mani in Dwapara Yuga is also believed to have visited this place. In later years, the Vijayanagar rulers reinforced the temple.

Kamat community belong to Koundinya Gothra.

Kamats community in India belong to the "Koundinya Gotra", so do several countless Brahmin families, throughout India.

  Koundinya Kingdoms of South East Asia.

If we go through the history of South East Asian Kingdoms, we can find Indian culture had spread since ancient times to them.

It is told Koundinya was a different kind of Brahmin. Koundinya showed his valor, became a king, married a local princess and founded a dynasty. Koundinya hailed from Mithila (present day Bihar) and was a Shaiva. Shaivism (worshiping Shiva) became the state religion of Cambuj (ancient name of Cambodia).

The royalty of Thailand also claims its origin from Koundinya. They practice many of the rituals laid down in the sastras like that of Manu till date

Summary

Sage Koundinya was a Vedic scholar. He was a worshipper of Lord Ganesha. He was a valor. Sometimes he was associated with Lord Buddha. His name is famous in Thailand and Kambodia too. In India other than Brahmins , there are Kamaths, Gauds follow Koundinya Gothra. Nothing is known about his children or more about his wife. He has come in the lineage of Parasurama.

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-25

1.SAGE KANVA

1.1.Introduction

Kanva was a renowned rishi. He is the author of several hymns of the Rig Veda. He was son of Ghora. Ghora was one of the Angirasas. The Kanvas are the descendants of Kanva. Sage Kanva brought up Sakunthala daughter of sage Viswamithra and apsaras Menaka. Sankuntala married king Dushyanta.The child born to them was Bharata from whom our country got the name so. King Bharata was an ancestor of Kauravas and Pandavas, who fought the war of the Mahabharata.

  Sage Kanva offended by Yadavas.

Once, some young Yadavas played a prank with Sage Kanva. One day, these grown up children went to the bank of river Narmada where sage Kanva was doingpenance. Samba son of Lord Krishna was one among the Yadava children. Samba disguised himself as a pregnant woman by keeping a pestle under his clothes. All the children went near Sage Kanva and asked him as to when was the pregnant woman supposed to deliver a child.

Sage Kanva curses Yadava clan destruction.

Sage Kanva got very much angry at their action. He cursed them that the whole clan of Yadavas would be liquidated because of that very pestle. All the children were scarred and told Sri Krishna about the mistake they had made. Sri Krishna ordered that the iron pestle be crushed to powder and be thrown into a pond. A fish swallowed a small part of that iron pestle and was subsequently caught by a fowler, who retrieved that iron-piece from the fish and fixed it on the top of his arrow.

Sri Krishna hit by arrow.

The curse came in to effect. In course of time all the Yadavas developed enmity among them and killed each other with those sharp-edged reeds.

Once, Sri Krishna was taking rest under the shade of 'Kalpa' tree. A fowler mistook his pink foot to be that of a deer and pierced it with his arrow. When the fowler arrived at the spot he found Sri Krishna in an injured condition. The fowler regretted his action and begged for Sri Krishna's pardon. Sri Krishna consoled the fowler by saying that he had committed no crime.

1.5   Srikrisha leaves the mortal body before the arrival of his wives.

Meanwhile, Daruk arrived there on his chariot. Sri Krishna instructed Daruk to call Arjuna as soon as possible. Arjuna arrived at the site within a short time. Sri Krishna told Arjuna-'the time for my final departure has arrived. Please call all my eight queen consorts.

Arjuna rushed towards Dwarka to summon the queens but Sri Krishna had already left for his heavenly abode before he could come back with the queens. Arjuna informed the queens about Sri Krishna's injury. In a short time the news spread like a wild fire and all the residents of Dwarka rushed towards the site of incident. After reaching there, the eight queen consorts of Krishna found that their beloved husband had already departed.

1.6 Sree Krishna's wives and relatives end their life.

The eight queen consorts of Krishna gave up their lives and united with Sri Krishna. The great Yadavas like Vasudev, Ugrasena and Akrur followed suit. Balarama could not bear the sorrow caused by Sri Krishna's separation and he gave up his life. His wife Revati entered the burning pyre with her husband's body. Similarly all the rest of Sri Krishna's family members like Rukmi's daughter, Pradyumna, Usha and Aniruddha left for heavenly abode.

Arjuna performed the last rite of all the dead Yadavas. Eventually, Dwaraka got submerged into the ocean. Thus, Sri Krishna after having liberated the earth from all the sinners left his mortal body.

1.7 Lord Mahadeva tell the story of Kanva's curse and the end of Yadavas to Parvathi.

Lord Mahadeva told the above story to Parvathi in Padma Purana. After completing his story Lord Mahadeva told Parvati that Sri Krishna takes incarnation whenever there is predominance of sin or sinners. Lord also revealed to her that Sri Krishna would incarnate as Kalki at the fag end of Kaliyuga.

1.8 Temples connected with stories of sage Kanva.

There are four temples connected with stories of sage Kanva.

1.8.1 Titwala Mahaganapathi temple in the suburban of Greater Mumbai.

It is told the Shri Mahaganapati (Titwala) was consecrated by sage Kanva: Devi Shakuntala & king Dushyant came together and worshipped in the temple.

1.8.2 Tiruporur Muruga temple.

Tiruporur is a tiny hamlet off Chennai and is situated 16miles from Chengalpattu. It has an old temple dedicated to Lord Muruga; it is famous and attracts devotees from all over. There is a story that Lord Vishnu and Lakshmi were cursed by sage Kanva. Lord Shiva liberated them from the curse atthis place.

1.8.3 Puduvayal Perumal temple.

There is a temple for Sri KanakaValli Sametha Vijayaraghava Perumal in Pudhu Vayal Village near Gummidi pundi. Sage Kanva build an ashram on the Banks of Aranya River here and worshipped the Narayana in the form of Sri Kamalavalli Sametha Vijayaraghava Perumal. He did the worship according to Vikanasa Method (Vikanasa consisted of Hitham (Yagnas), Archana and Dhayana. This Shetram was also known as Bridavanapuram as a lot of Tulasi plants grew here.

Long ago there was a Gandharva named Sumali. He became a Demon due to curse. In the demon form he was known as Nivdan. He used to create obstacle in the Yagnas done by sages and he used to trouble the Sages. This worried sage Kanva and he did penance and appeased Bramha Deva.

Brahma appeared and told Kanva that Sage Kashyapa who was the disciple of sage Vaikanasa was in Naimisaranya. Kanva may go to him and take his advice and please Simon Narayana. According to the prayer done Lord Veeraraghavan did the samhara of Sumali. Sumali got the Sapa Vimochana and Sage Kanva Got Annugraha of Lord.

1.8.4 Digambara Ganesa temple Kadav (MP)

In Madhya Pradesh at Kadav there is a Digambar Siddhivinayaka. It is told Sage Kanva consecrated this idol. Since the idol is without clothes it is call a Digambara Ganesha.

1.9 Reference in Ramayana to sage Kanva.

In the Ayodhya kanda Sarga 116: Sloka 20.Kulapati told Rama that they are planning to go and settle in sage kanva's hermitage, not far from there, which is lovely and had many roots and fruits. (Before Seetha swayamvara).

1.10 Contributions of sage Kanva.

The Rig Vedic 'samhita' or collection of mantras consists of 1017 or 1028 hymns or Suktas, which have been further divided 10 chapters or Mandala. The hymns are the work of many authors or seers called 'rishis'. There are seven primary seers identified: Atri, Kanwa, Vashistha, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Gautama and Bharadwaja.

There are no less than six complete recessions of Yajur Veda - Madyandina, Kanva, Taittiriya, Kathaka, Maitrayani and Kapishthala Atharva Veda.

1.11 Kanva lived in the same period of Viswamithra.

From sage Viswamitra and Menaka story and the child born was brought up by sage Kanva we know that they all lived around the same time. There is a Kanva Ashram on the banks of river Malini, 42 km from Haridwar. Probably it may be his final settlement. We know him through his Vedic Mantras and through the famous Dushyantha - Sakunthala -Bharata story.

1.12 Dushyanta- Sakuntala story.

I very well know a write up on sage Kanva is incomplete with out the story of Shakuntala. I am giving somewhat not much known information about the story here. They may be mostly retelling variations also. However they are interesting to read.

Kindly note other than reading from Internet I have not verified the original episodes as told in epic Mahabharata books.

1.12.1 Introduction of Shakuntala to Dushyanta

In the hermitage Shakuntala introduced herself as, the daughter of Sage Kanva. The surprised king Dushyanta said, "Everyone knew that Sage Kanva is unmarried and a celibate." Then Shakuntala recounted the story of her birth.

1.12.2 Shakuntala was not abandoned.

Worried by the severe penance performed by Viswamitra, Indra sent Menaka to divert his attention. The King and Menaka enjoyed together for a long time. A girl was born to them.

With her birth both Menaka and Vishvamitra realised that it was time for them to move on. Menaka had to return to heaven and Vishvamitra had to begin his meditation a new. Since Viswamithra was living near the hermitage of Sage Kanva, they requested Sage Kanva to adopt Shakuntala as his daughter and sage Kanva agreed to it happily.

(My note- I have read in many sites that the relation between Viswamithra and Menaka was one of love and affection. A child born out of such love, I cannot digest abandoned by them. Hence I appreciate very much this version).

1.12.3 Shakuntala laid conditions for marrying Dushyanta.

Shakuntala told details of her real birth and sage Kanva is her foster father to king Dushyanta. The King remarked that she should marry and enjoy life.

Then Sakunthala said to Dushyantha: 'Even though I like you, I will obey the sage's will. A girl should obey her father in childhood, husband in youth and son in her old age. A woman has no freedom.

Hearing the above Dushyanta told that Gandharva type of marriage is best suited for Kings. King Dushyanta took hold of her hand.

Shakuntala said: "Promise me truly what I say to you in secret. The son that is born to me must be your heir. If you promise, Dushyanta, I will marry you."

Dushyanta readily agreed to make the son born to them as King.

 1.12.4 Explanation of Gandharva style marriage

Since sage Kanva was away at this time, the two of them decided to get married in the Gandharva style. This consisted of exchanging garlands in a temple with the idol of the deity of the temple as witness. It originated from a clan of celestial musicians called Gandharvas, but was popular and accepted by the society of the time.

1.12.5 Due to customs Shakuntala was not taken along with by king Dushyanta.

King Dushyanta spent some pleasant weeks with Shakuntala at the hermitage. Then he had to leave to attend to the affairs of the state. Though they had got married without Sage Kanva's permission, custom prevented Shakuntala from leaving the hermitage without the sage's consent.

Sage Kanva did not returned still after attending his pilgrimage. Dushyanta promised that once Sage Kanva returned he would come and formally ask for permission to take Shakuntala with him. He gave Shakuntala his ring as a token of his love and reluctantly went to his capital.

1.12.6 Kalidasa has made slight changes to the original story told in Mahabharata to his play "Abhjnana Sakutalam"

It is told Kavi Kalidasa made some minor changes to the episode mentioned in the Mahabharata for his play Abhinjana Sakunthalam.

While Kanva and the other elders of the heritage are away on a pilgrimage, Dushyanta, king of Hastinapura, comes hunting in the forest and chances upon the hermitage. He is captivated by Shakuntala, courts her in royal style, and marries her.

It is told in the original episode in the Mahabharata, Shakuntala was not reunited until her son Bharata was born, and found by the king playing with lions.

Kalidasa is said to have changed the old story in three important respects. In the first place, he introduces the curse of sage Durvasa, clouding the king's memory, and saving him from moral responsibility in his rejection of Shakuntala.

For recovery of memory, the curse is modified as to last only until the king shall see again the ring, which he has given to his bride in the second place; the poet makes Shakuntala undertake her journey to the palace before her son is born.

The third change is a necessary consequence of the first; for without the curse, there could have been no separation, no ensuing remorse, and no reunion.

1.12.7 About Anasuya and Priyamvada.

Anusuya was slightlygrave andsober; Priyamvada was vivaciousandsaucy. Theywonderfully united in friendship and in devotion to Shakuntala in the hermitage, whom they feel to possess a deeper nature than theirs.

From the Internet we can get the beautiful pictures of Shakuntala, Anasuya and Priyamvada drawn by Late Raja Ravivarma of Kilimanoor Palace.

SUMMARY

Sage Kanva is best remembered though the Shakuntala story . He was a sage responsible for many hymens of Rig Veda. He remained as foster father of Shakuntala.

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-26

1. Saptharshies

Saptharshies were the mind born sons of Brahma. They were advised to perform procreation. Blood relation was not a criterion for the creation. Similarly age difference too was not seen.

In the first Manvanthara the saptharshies were a) Mareechi b) Atri c) Angeerasa d) Pulasthia e) Pulaha f) Kratu and g) Vasistha.

Other than saptharshies Brahma had other mind born sons like Manu, Brighu and Narada.

His Mind born daughter was Satrupa. Manu mind born son of Brahma married Satrupa mind born daughter. They Gave birth to a lot of children and grand children. Many persons mentioned in the sage stories are as such from the progeny of Manu-Satrupa couple.

1.1   Progeny fromsage Mareechi

Sage Mareechi and his six brothers(Saptharshies) married the seven daughters of Sage Kardam and Devahuti. It was Kala, Sage Kardam's daughter who was married to sage Marichi. They begot two children, a son Kashyapa and a daughter Purnima. Kashyapa was responsible for the procreation of several races including those of the Devas and Asuras.

Purnima had two sons Viraja and Vishvaga and a daughter Devakulya. Today we know Devakulya as the River Ganga.

Two VIPs from the creations of sage Mareechi were 1) sage Kashyapa and 2) Ganga.

Regarding the ancestry of sage couple Kardam and Devhuti understand they have come from Manu - Satrupa couple.

By marrying the seven daughters of sage couple Kardam- Devahuti, these saptharshies have become co- brother also among themselves.

1.2   Kashyapa sage son of Mareechi.

We have said sage Kashyapa was the son of sage Mareechi. Daksha Prajapati married his thirteen daughters with sage Kashyapa. The world is mainly the progeny of Kashyapa. Daksha married his 27 daughters to Moon and one daughter Sati to Lord Siva.So Kashyapa has become co- brother to Lord Siva and Moon God. Mareechi has also become Sambandhi of Daksha.

Ganga is the semi God who appears in Mahabharata story and sage Bhageeratha story. King Santhanu married Ganga. Bhishma pithamaha was their son. Bhageeratha was an ancestor to Panadvas and Kouravas.

1.3 Vibhandaka another sage son of Mareechi

Sage Kashyapa created sage Vibhandaka using his mental prowess while he was meditating. As soon as Vibondaka came out of Kashyapa's mind, he went to the deepest forests to perform very severe austerities. He was only performing the austerities for self-realization, but Indra was worried that he may in time usurp Indra's throne. So Indra as usual asked Brahma for his best apsara or divine maiden to send with him. Brahma sent Harsha, the ever-smiling one with Indra.

Because she was herself divine, Harsha could realize that Vibondaka wanted no material gains and that it would be impossible to seduce him.

Apsara Harsha came to Vibondaka's hermitage and began chanting mantras. Vibondaka heard this clear pronunciation of Vedic mantras, and looked at her. She fell at his feet and said, "Only for begetting a son from you have I chanted these mantras. If you don't accept this request, then I will end me." Vibondaka said that he would not have sex with her as it would reduce the effect of his penance, but he would not let her die.

He dropped some semen and told Harsha to impregnate herself. Harsha then understood that Indra had nothing to fear, so her mission was fulfilled. But she did not want to become pregnant and Vibondaka's semen was burning the earth.

1.4  Rishiasringa- sage grandson of Mareechi

So using her divine powers apsara Harsha put the semen in the ovaries of a deer. The deer soon delivered a baby who had a human form, but with deer horns. This child was Rishyashringa, meanings a human being with deer horns.

King Dasaratha had a daughter by name Santha. Sage Rishiasringa married her. Rishisasringa later conducted Puthra Kameshti yagam of Dasaratha. So sage Rishiasringa was Athiambar of Sri Rama, Lekshmana etc. and of course was very elder to them.

1.5   Sage Kapila- Machinan of sage Mareechi

Sage Kapilawas the 8th child after seven daughters for sage kardam and Devhuti . So sage Kapila was the machinan to all saptharshies including Mareechi.

1.6    Sage Kardam- Mamanar of Saptharshies

SageKardam and his wife Devhuti had seven daughters and one son. Seven daughters were married to Saptharshies under the president ship of Brahma. So sage kardam is sambandhi to Lord Brahma himself and mamanar to all saptharshies.

1.7    Sage Sandilya -Descendent of sage Mareechi and Kahyapa

Sage Sandilya was the descendant of sage Kashyapa and hence of sage Mareechi. His father's name was 'Devala' He was the royal priest of king Dileep who belonged to Soorya vamsa.

Sage Sandilya was the chief Hota to sage Viswamithra in creating the Trisanku swarga yagya.

2. Progeny fromsage Atri

SageAtri had a very chaste wifeAnasuya and their son sage Durvasa.

2.1 sage Durvasa - son of sage Atri

Durvasa remained bachelor. Sage Durvasa appear in Maha bharata -He grants the boon of children to Kunti. He alsocurse Sakuntala for not welcoming him immediately in to the ashram ,she being on thoughts of king Dushyanta.

2.2 Sage Kanva- a contampory of sage Durvasa 

Sage Kanva- He too was a bachelor sage who brought up Shakuntala. Durvasa curse Shakuntala for not welcoming him while coming to the hermitage of sage Kanva. So sage Kanva was a contampory of sage Durvasa.

3.Progeny fromsage Angeerasa

DevaGuru Brihaspathi was born to Angeerasa and Suroopa. Hisbrothers were Utathya and Samvartana. Brihaspathi isone VIP among sons of Angirasa.

Agni is another VIP son of sage Angirasa. We have stories of Agni deva in Ramayana and Mahabharata.

3.1 Brihaspathi- Deva Guruson of Angeerasa

Brihaspathi had three wives -Subha, Mamta and Tara

Seven daughters were born to Shubha " Bhanumati, Raka, Archismati, Mahishrvati, Siniwali and Havishmati.

Seven sons and a daughter were born to Tara from Brihaspathi. Tara had another son Budha from Moon God. The story of Moon god-Tara relation has been told in my earlierposting. Budha married Ila and King Pururuva was born to them. In the lineage of King Puruva the Pandavas and Kouravas hadborn.

Mamta gave birth to Kacha. We have read about Kacha- Devayani story in detail. Devayani was daughter of Asura guru- Sukra.

3.2 Sage Bharadwaja- Grandson of Angeerasa.

Deva Guru Brahaspathi'sanother son was sage Bharadwaja ,who was brought up by king Bharat. Sage Bharadwaja was responsible for the medical development of those dayas. Sage Bharadwaja was a disciple of sage Gauthama as well as of sage Valmiki. He was a first hand witness to the incident of the Krauncha birds.

3.3 Sage Garga- Grandson of Brihaspathi

 Sage Bharadwaja married Suseela and through her a son was born. He became sage Garga. We will be discussing about sage Garga later.

3.4 Sage Visravas- son in Law of sage Bharadwaja

Sage Bharadwaja had a daughter too called Devavarnini. She was given in marriage to sage Visravas . Kubera- the wealth keeper was the son born to them . This means Bharadwaja was the grand father of Kubera from maternal side.

3.5 Dronacharya- son of sage Bharadwaja

Sage Bharadwaja saw the Apsara Ghritachi rising from the river after ablations, His vitality emerged from his body. The Rishi stored this vitality in a pot. Drona was born from this pot. The meaning of Drona is Pot-born.

Bharadwaja trained Drona in use of weapons. Drona also learnt the use of weapons from sage Parasurama himself. Dronacharya was the teacher on Arms to Pandavas.

3.6 Sage Gouthama- a descendent of sage Angeerasa

We have read stories of sage Goutama and his wife Ahalya. We have read about Ahalya- Indra episode and curse of sage Gauthama on her. Later Ahalya joined with sage Gouthama and three sons were born to them. They were Vamadeva, Nodhas and Shatanada . Vamadeva and Shatanda were VIPs among them. The Chief priest of King Janaka of Mithila, was Shatananda.

Some famous disciples of Gautama were Praachina-yogya, Shaandilya, Gaargya, and Bharadwaja.

3.7 Sage Vamadeva- in the lineage of Angeerasa

We will be discussing about sage Vamadevalater.)

3.8 Sage Atharva- a contampory of sage Angeerasa

Sage Angirasa along with sage Atharvan are said to have composed most of the Atharvana Veda.

4. Progeny from sage Pulasthia

We have read in this mail itself -Satrupa was mind born daughter of Brahma. In the lineage from Satrupa -Prasuti -Preeti got married to sage Pulasthia. He also married Sradhha granddaughter of sage Pulaha. Preeti, wife of Sage Pulasthya had two sons named Dattarnavr and Dahvahu. She also had a daughter named Dwashdwati.

5. Progeny from sage Pulaha

We have read in this mail itself -Satrupa was mind born daughter of Brahma. In the lineage from Satrupa -Prasuti -Kshama got married to sage Pulaha. She had three sons.

5.1 Sage Kardam- son of Pulaha

Kshama and Pulaha had three sons, Kardama, Arva-rivat, and Sahishnu. Out of this sage Kardam became prominent. His wife was Devhuti. They had seven daughters and one son Kapila. They were married to Saptharshies. So sage Kardam was mamanar to Saptharshies.

Sage kardama's daughter was Sradhha. This mean Sradhha was the grand daughter of sage Pulaha. She married sage Pulasthia.

5.2 Sage Parasara was a disciple of sage Pulaha.

Sage Parasara was the grandson of sage Vasistha. Parasara married Satyavati and son born was Vedavyasa.

5.3 Sage Visravas- son of sage Pulaha

Sage Pulaha was also father of sage Visravas, the father of Kubera and Ravana through demon women, and all the Rakshasas are supposed to have sprung from him. In simple language sage Pulahawas thatha of Kubera and Ravana.

6. Progeny from sage Kratu

Sage Kratu did not produce normal beings. It was Kriya, sage Kardam's daughter who was married to sage Kratu. Kratu had 60,000 sons called as Valikhilyas. They were no bigger than a joint of the thumb.

7. Progeny from sage Vasistha

Arundhati married sage Vasishta and produced seven sons who became great sages themselves. We have read about them in connection with Viswamithra's Trisanku swargam, they cursed Trisanku to become chandala.

The names of these sons born to Vasistha and Arundhathi were Chitraketu, Surochi, Viraja, Mitra, Ulbana, Vasubhridyana and Dyuman. Vasishta also had children from his other wife. Most prominent was sage Sakthi. Other prominent sons were Chitraketu and Mitra.

7.2 Parasara- grand son of sage Vasistha.

We have read stories of sge Parasara and Satyavati. Son born to them was Vedavyasa.

7.3 Sage Veda vyasa- Lineage of Vasistha- son of sage Parasara

Vedavyasa was father of sage Suga, Pandu and Dhritharshtra and Vidura. He was the grandfather of Pandavas and Kouravas.

7.4 Sage Viswamithra- a contempory of sage Vasistha

We have read the story of sage Viswamithra, Nandini divine cow story, Trisangu swarga story etc. and his rivalry with sage Vasistha. Viswamithra was father of Sakunthala, grand father of king Bharat. Since Viswamithra and Vasistha appear in Ramayana story they were contempory with Rajarshi Dasaratha.

7.5 Sage Bharadwaja- grand son of sage Viswamithra

Bharatha was the son born to Sakunthala from king Dushyantha by Gandharva marriage. So Viswamithra was the grand father of Bharatha. Bharatha's adopted son was sage Bharadwaja. So Bharadwaja was the great grandson of sage Viswamithra.

The legend is that sage Bharadwaja was born, as the son of Brihaspati. His mother was the wife of Utathya. She became pregnant by her husband and by Brihaspati, it is told.Dirgha-tamas, the son by Uthathya kicked his half-brother (Bharadwaja) out of the womb before his birth in anger. At that time Brihaspati said to his mother, `Bhara-dwa-jam,' `Cherish this child of two fathers.' 

7.6 Sage Suga- son of sage Vedavyasa

Once, a desire arose in the mind of Vedavyasa.He met the sage Jabali and proposed to marry his daughter Vatika. Accepting the proposal, the sage Jabali happily married his daughter Vatika to VedaVyasa. Thus, living in his hermitage amidst the forests, Maharishi Vedavyasa began his married life.

With time, his wife Vatika became pregnant and had a peculiar birth of a child. He was sage Suka. Sage Suka remained as bachelor Sage Sugapreached Shrimad Bhagwat to King Parikshith (grand son of Arjuna) for 7 days continuously. Sage Ugrava present there repeated it to sage Suta. Hence Srimad Bhagavatham has become famous.

With the above I have covered the sages lineage from Saptharshies through stories to my possible extent. To a certain extent I could establish their relation.

The list of sages told above has been summarised in Table from below. It will very simple to understand the relation among the sages by looking in the table after reading the above. Probably the table may be sufficient for those who have read the stories by lines.

1. Mareechi

2. Kashyapa

3. Vibhandaka

4. Rishiasringa

5. Kapila

6. Kardam

7. Sandilya

 

 

 

 

 

8. Atri

9. Durvasa

10. Kanva

 

 

 

11. Angeerasa

12. Brihaspathi

13. Bharadwaja

14. Garga

15. Visravas

16. Drona

17. Gauthama

18. Vamadeva

19. Atharva

 

 

 

20. Pulashtia

21. Pulaha

22. Kardam

23. Kratu

 

 

 

 

 

24. Vasistha

25. Sakthi

26. Parasara

27. Vedavyasa

28. Suga

29. Viswamithra

 

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-27

8. Progeny from SAGE BHRIGU

Sage Bhrighu was one of the mind born sons of Lord Brahma, who simply wished him into existence, to assist in the process of creation. He is considered as one of the Prajapatis. (Mahabharata, Pauloma Parva).

8.1 Sage Sukracharya- son of sage Bhrighu.

Sukracharya was son of sage Bhrigu and he was priest of Mahabali (of famous Tiruvonam story) and Daitya guru. He has become planet.

His wife's name was Susuma or Sata-parwa. His daughter Devayani was married to King Yayati of the lunar race.

8.2 Sage Chyavana was half brother to sage Sukracharya.

Sage Chyavana married Princess Sukanya and had two sons Aurva and Haritha. He was half brother to Sukracharya.

8.3 Sage Dadichi- son of sage Chyavana

Sage Chyavana was highly pleased with his wife Sukanya and one day he told her that he was pleased with her devotion and he would bless her with three sons. They would be named as Dadeechi, Pramathi and Apravan.

8.4 Sage Saraswath- son of sage Dadichi

The Saraswat Brahmins are mentioned in the Vedas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata and in the Bhavisyottara Purana.They accepted the Sage Saraswat (son of Rishi Dadichi), living on the banks of Saraswati as their Guru.

8.5 Sage Avurva- grandson of sage Bhrighu

Sage Aurva was the grandson of sage Bhrigu. He is described in the Maha-bharata as Born of the sage Chyavana by his wife Arushi.

8.6 Sage Harita- Grandson of sage Bhrighu.

Harita was one of the great kings of Suryavansha. Brahmins with Harita gotra are the descendants of king Harita.The Pravara of this gotra is Angiras, Ambarisha, Yuvanaswa. Ambarisha and Yuvanaswa were also great kings of Suryavansha and ancestors of Lord Rama.

In the Vishnu Purana it is said, "The son of Ambarísha, the son of Mándhátri, was Yuvanáśwa; his son was Harita, from whom the Angirasa Háritas were descended". Sri Ramanuja was born in Harita Gotra.

8.7 Sage Jamadagni descendent of sage Bhrighu

 Sage Aurva had a son named Richika. Richika married Princess Satyavati. Satya-vati was daughter of King Gadhi, a Kshatriya.

Jamadagni was the son born to them. So sage Jamadagni was a descendant of sage Bhrigu.

Sage Jamadagni married Princess Renuka.

8.8 Sage Parasurama- son of sage Jamadagni

Sage Parasurama remains as a Bachelor. He is a chiranjeevi. He created Keralam. He was contempory to Srirama. He was preceptor of Karna in Mahabharata. So he was contempory to Pandavas too.

9 Sage Vamadeva

Once Lord Brahma was meditating on Parameshthi Shiva. Suddenly a divine child appeared before him who was of red complexion and who had put on red apparels. He was none other than Lord Vaamdev. Lord Brahma immediately realized the divinity of that child and was convinced that he was the embodiment of Almighty God.

Lord Brahma eulogized Vaamdev who was pleased by his devotions.

 Four divine entities-Virija, Vivahu, Vishoka and Vishwabhavana manifested from the body of Vaamdev. All of them had great resemblance to Lord Vaamdev.

Vaamdev preached them on the finer points of religiousness so that mankind could be benefited by this knowledge.

10 Sage Ashtavakra

In the Mahabharata epic the story of sage Ashtavakra is told by sage Lomasa to the Pandavas while the Pandavas were in exile.

Uddalaka was a renowned sage and scholar well versed in the Vedas and the Vedanta.Kahoda was his disciple. Kahoda lacked slightly in knowledge, but made up with his devotion and virtuous life. Impressed by these qualities Uddalaka married his daughter Sujata to kahoda .Son born to them was Ashtavakra.

The Ashtavakra Geetha, or the Ashtavakra Samhita as it is sometimes called, is a very ancient Sanskrit text attributed to him.

11 . Sage Koundinya

 Koundinya was a great sage. He was a master of Vedic knowledge. He was a sage known beyond Bharat. Ashraya was his wife.

Kaundinya came to prominence as a youth due to his mastery of the Vedas.He was a great devotee of Lord Ganesha.

Upon enlightenment, Siddartha gave his first dharma talk to Kaundinya's group Kamats community in India belong to the "Koundinya Gotra", so do several countless Brahmin families, throughout India.

In know sages 26 I had mentioned details of sage Garga will be told later.The same is as under

3.3 Sage Garga

Garga was the son of Rishi Bharadwaja and Suseela.Gargya (son of Garga) is the author of some of the Sukthas of the Atharvana Veda.

Sri Prasanna Parvathi Sametha Gargeshwari temple near Mysore is named after the Garga where Ardhanareeswara appeared before him.

GARGA An ancient sage, and one of the oldest writers on astronomy. The Vishnu Purana says, "From Garga sprang Sina (or Sini); from them were descended the Gargyas and Sainyas, Brahmans of Kshatriya race." The statement of the Bhagavata is, "From Garga sprang Sina; from them Gargya, who from a Kshatriya became a Brahman."

There were many Gargyas; one among themwas the family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna). It was Garga whonamed childas "Krishna" after receiving the name by meditation. Garga is the authorof Garga Samhita.

In know sages 26 the following 2 sages were left outto add under Progeny of sage Veda Vyasa. The same is as under: -

7.7. Sage Vaisampayana-deciple of sage Vedavyasa

He was a celebrated sage who was the original teacher of the Black Yajur-veda. He was a pupil of the great Vyasa, from whom he learned the Maha-bharata, which he afterwards recited to King Janamejaya at a festival. The Hari-vansa is also represented as having been communicated by him. Sage Yanjavalkya was his sister's son.

7.8 Sage Yanjavalkya- Maruman of sage Vaisampayana

He got the White Yajurveda from sun god. Sage Brahmaratha and Sunanda Devi were the parents of Yajnavalkya. Sunandadevi was the sister of sage Vaisampayana.

The Maha-bharata makes him present at the Raja-suya sacrifice performed by Yudhi-shthira; and according to the Satapatha Brahmana he flourished at the court of Janaka, king of Videha and father of Sita. He had two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani, and he instructed the former in his philosophical doctrine.

 

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-28

1. SAGE AGASTYA.

Sage Agasthia was a famous sage and he was a reputed author of several hymns in the Rig-Veda, and a very celebrated personage in Hindu story. He was one of the narrators of "the Brahma Purana and also a writer on medicine.

1.1   Birth of Agasthia

He is said to be the offspring of Mitra and Varuna, whose seed fell from them at the sight of apsaras Urvasi.Agastya was born in a water-jar as a fish of great lustre. He was called Kalasi-suta, Kumbha-sambhava, and Ghatodbhava on account of this .He was very small when he was born, not more than a span in length, on account of which he was called Mina.

The puranas also represent him as being the son of Pulastya, the sage from whom the Rakshasas sprang.

According to Akilattirattu Ammanai, the religious book of Ayyavazhi, Agastya was created from the mind of lord Siva in order to offer boons to Kaliyan. As per the order of Siva, Agastya offered many boons including all worldly knowledge to him.

1.2   Command Vindhya Mountains prostrate.

His name Agastya was derived by a forced etymology from a fable, which represents him as having commanded the Vindhya Mountains to prostrate themselves before him, through which they lost their primeval altitude.

1.3 Drinks ocean

Sage Agasthia was also called Pitabdhi, or Samudra-chuluka. There is a story telling that sage Agasthiadrank up the ocean because it had offended him, and because he wished to help the gods in their wars with the Daityas when the latter had hidden themselves in the waters.

1.4 Become star

Sage Agasthia was afterwards made regent of the star Canopies, which bears his name.

1.5 Agasthia create his wife

As with all other Hindus, it was necessary for Agastya to marry and sire a son, in order to fulfil his duties to the Manus. Once he resolved upon doing this, Agastya pursued an unusual course of action.

The Maha-bharata relates a legend respecting the creation of his wife. It says that Agastya saw his ancestors suspended by their heels in a pit, and was told by them that they could be rescued only by his begetting a son.

Thereupon he formed a girl out of the most graceful parts of different animals. At this time, the noble and virtuous king of Vidarbha was childless and was undergoing penances and prayers for the gift of a child. Agastya arranged for the child he had created to be born as the daughter of that noble king of Vidarbha.

There the child grew up as a daughter of the king, and was demanded in marriage by Agastya.

Sage Agasthia is referred in the Maha bharata in Sauptikaparva also as the teacher of Guru Drona.

1.6 Meaning of Lopa mudra

Much against his wills the king was constrained to consent, and she became the wife of the sage. She was named Lopa-mudra, because the animals had been subjected to loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive beauties, as the eyes of the deer etc. She was also called Kausitaki and Vara-prada.

1.7 Change king Nahusha to snake

There is a story exhibiting his superhuman power, by which he turned King Nahusha into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his proper form.

1.8 Appearance in Ramayana

It is in the Ramayana that Agastya makes the most distinguished figure. He dwelt in a hermitage on Mount Kunjara, situated to the south of the Vindhya Mountains, and was chief of the hermits of the south. Sree Rama during his exile visited the hermitage of Agastya with Sita and Lakshmana. The sage received him with the greatest kindness, and became his friend, adviser, and protector. He gave him the bow of Vishnu.

Sage Agastya appeared to Rama when he was despondent at the impending war with Ravana and instructed him in the use of Aditya Hridayam, a hymn praising the Sun God. Agastya also composed Saraswati Stotram.

When Rama was returning back to his kingdom after the war, the sage accompanied him to Ayodhya.

1.9 Vathapi story

He kept the Rakshasas who infested the south under control, so that the country was only gazed upon and not possessed by them. His power over them is illustrated by a legend which represents him as eating up a Rakshasa named Vatapi who assumed the form of a ram, and as destroying by a flash of his eye the Rakshasa's brother, Ilvala, who attempted to avenge him.

1.10 Lopamudra become river Kaveri

There is a story how Lopamudra became river Kaveri. Once while travelling sage Agasthia who do not want to keep Lopamdura alone converted her to water and carried in a pitcher. Sage Agastia one evening kept the pitcher on a rock and went for ablutions. Lord Ganesha took the form of a crow and tilted the pitcher and it got opened. Lopamudra who had already wished to become a river started to flow and her wish was fulfilled so. Lopamudra became river Kaveri. We may be recollecting our Upakarma manthra- Narmada sindhu Kaveri, Gdavari Namosthuthae now.

1.11 Sage Agasthia and Tamil literature

The name of Agastya holds a great place also in Tamil literature, and he is "venerated in the south as the first teacher of science and literature to the primitive Dravidian tribes according to Dr. Caldwell.

The traditions of the south of India ascribe to Agastya a principal share in the formation of the Tamil language and literature.

1.12 Sidda Vaidyam and Nadi Jyothisham

Agastya is famous for being the first siddhar in the siddhars tradition. He created many medicines, and jathakam (Agasthia nadi) referred by Nadi jyothishies.

Two of his students and disciples were Therayar and Therayar and Tholkappiar. Those who see 3 years prolonging Kolangal serial in Sun TV may recollect now Mr.Thol, the hero of the serial.

1.13 Agasthia Gothra

Named after him there is a Gothra followed by many Hindus.

2. SAGE MUDGALA

2.1 Sage Mudgala story- reference in Mahabharata

Nalayani was the young wife of very old sage, Mudgala, but she was a great Pativrata. Even when Mudgala Rishi became afflicted by leprosy and started stinking, she continued to serve him. Once, when he was consuming food, one of his fingers fell of from his hands and fell into the food. Nalayani removed it and partook the remaining food. The sage was extremely pleased.

In order to please he took five bodily forms corresponding to Panchabhootas and satisfied her in all respects.

After thousands of years, he wanted to retire from family life and wanted to live the life of a sage. But, Nalayani tried to prevent him and keep him in the material pleasures. Sage Mudgala cursed her that she will be borne as the daughter of Drupada and will marry five men. (source : Adi Parva of Mahabharata verses 197 to 204).

2.2 Droupadi - Five husbands

It is told on account of the above curse, though Arjuna won Droupadi in swayamvara , due toKunti's wordings she had to become the common wife of all Pandavas. As a matter of fact, she had her special affection to Arjuna since he won her in swayamvara. Some time it may look strange, butit was Narada who devisedthe way that she should live withthe five husbands.

2.3 Droupadi- Chastity

it is told Droupadi was very pride of her chastity. Sree Krishna was not happy with her extra pride. He created an illusion in her mind to takeout her pride.

The story goes as follows. During exile Pandavaswere near the hermitage of a sage after Droupadi swayamvara. I am not able to recollect the name of the sage now.

There was a mango tree in the garden of the hermitage. The only food of the sage was the ripen Mango from the tree after evening bath and Sandhya . The tree irrespective of seasons used to provide one fully ripened mango per day.

With out knowing all these, Droupadi desired to have the single mango fruit one day evening. Sage had gone for his bath and Sandhya. As expected she requested Arjuna to get her the mango. Arjuna with his arrow got it down and handed over to Droupadi in seconds.

Before she started a cut and bite of the mangofortunately Sree Krishna appeared in the site. He told the mango fruit -the only food of the sage and pretended alarmed. All Pandavas got upset and feared a curse of sage.

2.4 Sree Krishna finds remedy

Sree Krishnasuggested all the Pandavas and Droupadito assemble below the tree. He asked Sahadeva to hold the mango. He suggested every body truly express what they thought in mind mango will go up and cling as usual. Mango went to 1/4th way when Sahadeva expressed what he felt in mind . Mango went another quarterway when Nakulaexpressed what he felt. This way mango was about to touch the clan , it was the last turn of Droupadi. But what she expressed was not true. Mango fell down.

All Pandavas got upset. Krishna warned Droupadito tell the truth. Having no alternative , she called Krishna inside and told the truth. Mango went up and added to the clan.

The story goes that she expressed about the set up of kingdom and her position as royal queen in the open. But actually she thought about Karna too being among Pandavas.

Sree Krishna told Pandavas, to subsideher pride of chastity , he created such a situation andillusion in the mind of Droupadi and nothing more than that.

2.5 Forbearance of Mudgala

Once sage Durvasa came to the hermitage of sage Mudgala in a digambara form and Mudgala gave him, whatever food he obtained as alms. Durvasa consumed some food from it. The remaining food, he massaged on his own body. Yet, Mudgala did not become angry.

The following days also Durvasa came to Mudgalas Ashram before the latter could quench his hunger and repeated the same behaviour. Mudgala gave all the food to Durvasa and remained hungry for several days.

Finally, Durvasa said that he was extremely pleased with Mudgala's patience and forbearance and blessed Mudgala with an offer to take him to the Heaven in his physical body.

Immediately the Devas came with their plane. Mudgala enquired Durvasa about the pleasures available in the Heaven and then in the end he refused to be drawn to such pleasures. (source : Vana Parva of Mahabharata Ch. 261).

2.6 Mudgala and Ganapathi

Ganesha Purana speaks of Rishi Mudgala, who was an ardent devotee of Lord Ganapathi, who was so pleased with him that he gave his devotee powers to give boons to other devotees.

2.7 Daksha become disciple of sage Mudgala

Daksha became an ardent devotee of Ganapathi. On Ganapathi's advice, he met Rishi Mudgala, who taught him the one lettered mantra OM. This, Daksha chanted relentlessly.

2.8 Mudgala Purana

Perhaps no other Rishi in the human world has a purana named after him. This Purana does not give any information about Rishi Mudgala, but is out and out exposition of the grandeur of Lord Ganapathi. This shows the humility of the author, Rishi Mudgala. This Purana has 9 khandas and gives details about all facets of Ganesha worship.

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-29

1.SAGE KUTSA 

Sage Kutsa is one of the Saptarshies of the current (7th) Manvantara. Each sage has his own speciality. Sage Kutsa stands for sweetness. It is said that out of the 82 suktas in the Rudram, about 65 are the outpourings of Sage Kutsa. It is also stated that sage Kutsa explained the allegories of the first laws of celestial bodies. Name of Kutsa is found mentioned in the Vedas in about 40 to 50 contexts. They show how the greatness of this Sage is recognized in the Vedas.

The Prokshana Mantram goes as follows "Om Bhoo: Om Bhuvaha: Om Suvaha". It is said that water is a purifier. The water gets the ability to purify anything that it touches. This power is rested upon water through the Prokshana Mantram. The Taittriya Samhita states that the Mantra Drishtas of the above mantra are none other than sages Atri, Bhrigu & Kutsa. So sage Kutsa is a contempory of sage Atri.

1.1 Meaning of Kutsa

Kutsa is indeed a very strange name. The word Kutsa means in Sanskrit faultfinding One who engages in scolding or belittling others. Perhaps he was very exasperated with the vagaries of the world and was vocally expressing his displeasure.

1.2 Kutsa become frog

Once this great Sage made a mistake in pronouncing a Veda mantram and, therefore, was cursed to become a frog in the well. When he atoned for his lapse, Veda Purusha told him that even while being a frog, he would remember his previous birth and will be relieved of the curse if he did penance in the Pushkarani and prayed to Soundararaja PerumaaL for 48 days. This he did and was cured of his curse and regained his former self. The place he prayed is today's Anbil.

The PushkaraNI is known as Mandooka PushkaraNi. (Authority: Tiruvarangam TirukkOyil (pages 73-74) of the Sri Ranganatha Swami Devastanam, Srirangam). ANBIL is situated 5 miles east of Lalgudi, in Tirchy District, Tamil Nadu).

1.3. Kutsa mistaken for Indra by Indrani herself

Rig Veda 4.16.10 mentions a conversation between Sage Vaamadeva and Indra, which illustrates how Kutsa and Indra were not only friends but also were looked alike. Once Indrani herself could not differentiate between them. She had to ascertain from the horses mouth of Indra himself!

Kutsa was the son of Rajarshi Ruru. Once at the request of Kutsa, Indra helped in decimating Ruru's enemies and invited Kutsa to Indraloka to celebrate the victory. It was then that the above incident happened.

1.4 Kalidasa and Kutsa

Kalidasa commences the 5th Sargam of his Raghuvamsa with an invocation to Kutsa. It was due to the blessings of Sage Kutsa that fame of Raghu Vamsa was firmly established.

2. SAGE ATHREYA

Sage Athreya was a descendent of Sage Atri.

2.1- Athreya visit Indra's court

Sage Atreya had done many yajnas and was able to go to any place he liked. One day in course of his wanderings he came to the court of Indra, which fascinated him by its beauty and festivities. He thought that no other place could be more pleasant and he wanted it with all his heart. His modest hut could not please him any more. He called his wife and told, 'what sort of rubbish are you giving me to eat? Does it taste good? Your fruits and vegetables cannot come anywhere near the sweet items I ate at Indra's court.

2.2 Athreya order Viswakarma

Atreya called Viswakarma and asked him to make his hermitage like Indra's palace.

Athreya told Viswa karma-"If you do not do as I tell I shall reduce you to ashes by curse.The buildings, the court, the gardens, the elephant, the horse, the chandelier, the music, the food, and the courtiers - all these must be as they are in Indra's palace".

Afraid of the curse, Viswakarma forthwith built a palace, which could rival Indra's palace in the place of his hermitage. Much pleased sage Athreya patted Viswakarma -'This is the very thing I wanted'.

2.3 Demons attack palace of Athreya

After some time however the demons began to frown at the place and said, 'Look, that fellow Indra has left the heaven and built a home on our earth.Let us go and give him a good thrashing for killing our Vritra'.

Shouting, 'Kill Indra! Kill Indra!' the demons in a body laid that palace under siege.The sage was happily reclining on his new bed provided by Viswakarma.But when he heard the shouts of the demons he became mortally afraid.Within minutes using all kinds of weapons the demons reduced the place to a heap of rubbles.The sage himself did not escape some minor injuries.He came out trembling to the demons and told them with folded hands, 'I swear, I am not Indra; I am a sage, a Brahmin and a very poor and innocent man. Why are you so angry with me?'

 'Then why have you are posing like Indra?Remove your trappings at once', said the demons.

'At once I am doing as you say". He replied to Demons and the demons left keeping the sage with a sigh of relief.

2.4 Viswa karma makes a hearty laugh

Athreya thought- at one moment I lost my brain and did all these foolish things.I shall never do it again.Viswakarma was summoned again and was told by the sage to replace the palace with his modest ashram.He told Viswakarma - 'Do it soon, or I shall die in the hands of these demons.'

Realising that the sage was in grave danger Viswakarma readily obeyed and the huts and the forests reappeared where a short while ago a palace stood.However before he left Viswakarma enjoyed a hearty laugh at the predicament of the sage.

3. SAGE MANDAVYA

Mandavya was a great sage. The king wrongly punished him by being impaled as the chief of robbers who had clandestinely hidden their stolen goods in a corner of his hermitage when he was in deep contemplation.

3.1 Mandaya curse Lord Dharma

Lord Dharma gave him this punishment for having tortured birds and bees in his childhood. At this Mandavya cursed Dharma to be born on earth. Mandavya argued with Dharma in what way an innocent child's actions are taken as sin by him.

On account of the curse Dharma was born as Vidura, to the servant maid of Ambalika with sage Vedavyasa.

3.2 Mandavya story told by Cho in Engae Brahminan serial

The story was quoted by Cho in his serial citing all children activities are to be considered innocent.

4. SAGE JAHNU

He was a sage descended from Pururavas. All knows the story of decent of Ganga from heaven to earth on account of the penance by King Bhageeratha. Adamant Ganga flowed with much force.She was not interested to come to earth. She came down as compelled by Lord Vishnu.

4.1 Sage Jhanu get disturbed

The sage was disturbed in his devotions by the passage of the river Ganga brought by Bhageeratha and consequently he drank up its waters.

4.2 Bhageeratha request sage Jhanu to release Ganga

The sage afterwards relented, and allowed the stream to issue from his ear; hence Ganga is called Jahnavi, daughter of Jahnu.

5. SAGE MANDA-KARNI

Manda karni was a sage who dwelt in the Dandaka forest. His story is told in the Ramayana to have formed a lake, which was known by his name. His austerities alarmed the Gods.

5.1 Indra send five apsarases to Lure Mandakarni

It is told sage Mandakarni was"standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 years" To distract him Indra sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance. Recollect even distracting Viswamithra and Sukracharya Indra sent only one apsaras- Menaka and Jayanthi respectively.

5.2 Indra succeeds

They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was, was called Panchapsaras.

6. NARA-NARAYANA

They were two ancient Sages, born to Dharma Deva and Ahimsa. The Vamana Purana has a legend about them, which is alluded to in the drama of Vikramorvasiyam by Kavi Kalidasa.

6.1 Indra sends Apsaras to lure sages Nara-Narayana

Their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, so Indra sent apsaras to inspire them with passion and disturb their devotions.

6.2 Birth of Urvasi

Sage Narayana took a flower and placed it on his thigh. Immediately there sprung from it a beautiful apsaras whose charms far excelled those of the celestial apsaras send by Indra.

6.3 Sage Narayana send Urvasi along with Apsaras

The action of sage Narayana made the apsarases return to heaven filled with shame and vexation. Narayana sent this apsaras Urvasi too to Indra with them. Since the apsaras was produced by the sage from his thigh (uru) she was called Urvasi.

7. SAGE SAPTA-VADHRI

Saptha vadhri was a Vedic Sage. Sapta-vadhri had seven brothers who determined to prevent his having family life with his wife. So they used to shut him up every night in a large cage, which they locked and sealed, and in the morning they let him out.

7.1 Aswini Devas help sage Sapthavadhri

Sage Saptha vadhri was a devotee of Aswini Kumars whom we already know through princess Suganya -and sage Chyavana story. He prayed to the Aswini devas to help him.

7.2 Aswini devas help the sage

Aswini devas pleased with his prayer enabled him to get out of his cage during the night and to return to it at daybreak.

Later sage Spthavardhi made a hymen about it, which says, "Aswins, by your devices sunder the wickerwork for the liberation of the terrified, imploring Sage Sapta-vadhri."

8 SAGE RICHIKA

Sage Richika was a descended from sage Bhrigu. He was the son of sage Urva. He was father of sage Jamadagni. He was an old sage. His wife was princess Sathyavati (Not sage Parasara- Satyavati. It is another Satya vati sister of sage Viswamithra).

8.1 Sage Richika demands Princess Sathyavati

The story of sage Richika is told in the epics Maha-bharata and Vishnu Purana

Princess Satyavati was the daughter of Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja. She was sister of our famous sage Viswamithra.Unwilling to give her to an old a man, King Gadhi demanded from the sage Richika 1000 white horses, each of them having one black ear. The condition as we know was very tough.

8.2 Sage Richika pray Lord Varuna

Richika made a prayer to Lord Varuna. Pleased with his prayer God Varuna gave him the horses as required. Sage Richika presented the horses before king Gadhi. King Gadhi had to consent now to give princess now.

8.3 Sage Richika gains Princess Satyavati

With the help of God Varuna so sage Richika gained his wife. In due course the born to them became sage Jamadagni.

8.4 Payasa get exchanged

Sage Richika desired a devoted Brahmin as his son. So he prepared a special payasa for his wife Satyavati. At the same King Gadhi's queen too desired to have a valiant son. Accordingly sage Richika made another payasa for his mamiar too. It was common on those days to have pregnancy for mother and daughter at the same time.

The queen mamiar felt the sage wood have added specials in the payasa made for the daughter. So she gave the payasa made for her to Satyavati- her daughter. Mamiar simply exchanged the payasas.

8.5 Effect of Payasa exchange

It is told on this account king Kousika later turned as sage Viswamithra and sage Jamadagni was born with royal nature.

8.6 Sage Viswamithra- mama to sage Jamadagni

On account of this sage Viswamithra became mama to sage Jamadagni.

9. SAGE SANKRITHI

Sankrithi was the Grandson of Sage Vashishta, and the son of Sage Shakthi. Sage Shakthi we have already read was the father of Sage Parasara with Satyavathi/ Matsya Gandhi.

 We already read Parasara was the father of Sage Veda Vyasa who wrote Mahabharatha and father of Pandu and Dhritharashtra.

9.1 Sage Sankrithi half brother to sage Parasara

So sage Sankrithi was half brother to sage Parasara.

Nothing much known about Sage Sankrithi except that his name figures in the Avadhuta Upanishad, where Lord Dattatreya explains the nature of an Avadhuta to Sage Sankrithi. He is the founder Sage of the Sankrithi Gotra.

10. SAGE JAIMINI

He was a celebrated sage, and a disciple of VedaVyasa. He is said to have received the Sama-Veda from his master, and to have been its publisher or teacher. He was also the founder of the Purva-mimansa philosophy.

 

KNOW ABOUT SAGES-30

1. SAGE UPAMANYU

Upamanyu was the name of a Vedic sage who finds reference in Rig Veda, Siva Purana, Linga Purana, Kurma Purana and also in Adi Parva as well as in Anushasana Parva of epic Mahabharata.

Upamanyu's Guru was Ayoda Dhaumya . He received his Vedic education at Taksasila. His guru was so pleased with him that he blessed him with instant memory and told him that he will know the Vedas and Dharamshashtras automatically without any effort.

Upamanyu was also the epic promulgator of the Shaivisam. His hermitage was in the mountains of Himalayas .His father was the sage Vyaghrapada.

Upamanyu had heard of Shiva in several forms from his mother and afterward, recited to Krishna the thousand and eight names of Shiva.

2. SAGE MAITREYA

Sage Maitreya was son of Kusarava, He was a disciple of sage Parasara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas.

The Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra, a treatise on astrology was expounded by sage Parasara (the father of Veda Vyasa) to sageMaitreya.

Sage Maitreya explained parts of the Bhagavatham to Vidura, a son of Veda Vyasa.

3.SAGE KATAYANA

Katayanawas a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.

He is known for two works: The Varttika, an elaboration on PaniniVyakarana . This was one of the six Vedangas, and constituted compulsory education for Brahmin students in the following twelve centuries.

He also composed one of the later Sulba Sutras, a series of nine texts on the geometry of altar constructions.

Katayana believed, like Plato, that the word-meaning relationship was not a result of human convention. For Katayana, word-meaning relations were siddha, given to us, eternal.

4. SAGE DALABHYA

Dalabhya is a sage mentioned in the Chandogya Upanishad. His lineage is the Dalabhya gotra. The Chandogya Upanishad describes a conversation between sages Shilak, Dalabhya and Pravahana. The sage is also mentioned in the Bhavisya-uttara Purana where the sage Pulastya narrates him the story of Krishna taking the form of a mendicant.

5. WOMAN SAGE MAITREYI

Woman sage Maitreyi took companion ship with sage Yanjavalkia with the permission of his wife Katayani. We had a mention about woman sage Maitreyi in the sage Yanjavalkya story.

Sage Yajnawalkya indoctrinated her in the mysteries of religion and philosophy.

6. SAGE SHOUNAKA

Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the rig veda-Prathisakha and the Brihad-devata.

According to the Vishnu Purana, Shaunaka was the son of Gritsamada, and invented the system of the four levels of human life.

He was the teacher of Katyayana. Shaunaka had a prominent role in the epic Maha Bharata.

Naimikaranyam is a dense forest in Bharath. Sownaka and other Sages lived in the forest. They spent their time here in penance. Hence this forest is considered very sacred. The epic was narrated to Shaunaka by a storyteller named Ugrasrava Sauti during a conclave of sages headed by Shaunaka in a forest named Naimisha.

Once sage Sootha explained to other Sages the eighteen Puranas written by sage Vyasa, his Guru. The Sages heard him devotedly. During the time Sownaka and others had a desire to hear from him the story of Sri Venkateswara. So they requested sage Sootha to narrate to them that story also. He readily agreed, since he considered it a great pleasure to do so. Hence every body came to know about Sreenivasa-Padmavathi marriage.

7. SAGE NARADA

All knows sage Narada. I just quote an incident for his bachelor hood. The Narada-pancha-ratra relates that Brahma advised his son Narada to marry, but Narada censured his father as a false teacher, because devotion to Krishna was the only true means of felicity. Brahma then cursed Narada to lead a life of sensuality, in subjection to women, and Narada retorted the curse, condemning Brahma to lust after his own daughter.

Narada was very pride of his bachelor hood and advocate others too. An example is Sanatkumara story. Lord Krishna created an illusion in which Narada lived with family for some time and lost wife, children and all wealth.

There is also another story (I read somewhere) that he was interested to get Damayanti in swayamvara. He asked Vishnu to provide him form of Kapi in face so she will get attracted to him. Pleased with kapi face Narada appeared in the swayamvara hall. Every body looked at him strange. Kapi has two meanings 1-Vishnu 2-Monkey. The second one was offered. However Damayanti had already determined to marry Nala.

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